The application of the new technology in the dry-land areas is simply ruled out. (A) Mahatma Gandhi ADVERTISEMENTS: (B) Indira Gandhi (C) Jawahar Lai Nehru (D) Motilal Nehru 2. Her government targeted an average growth rate of 5.2% over the period of the plan. Lyndon Johnson gave her a gushing welcome and responded to the food problem confronting her effusively, promising as many as 10 million tons of PL480 wheat. [145] Libya agreed with the Arab monarchies in believing that Gandhi's intervention in East Pakistan was an attack against Islam. [144] Although Iran had earlier characterized the Indo-Pakistani war in 1965 as Indian aggression, the Shah had launched an effort at rapprochement with India in 1969 as part of his effort to secure support for a larger Iranian role in the Persian Gulf. During this time, the war with Pakistan came up in December 1971. The Janata alliance, under the leadership of Morarji Desai, came to power after the State of Emergency was lifted. Oct 10, 2013, 15:50 PM IST Indira was 18 at the time and had never experienced a stable family life during her childhood. [15], Farmer's financial issues have become especially apparent in Punjab, where its rural areas have witnessed an alarming rise in suicide rates. 43,000,000 (4.34 crore) and invited joint venture bids from automobile companies around the world. "[176], To deal with India's food problems, Gandhi expanded the emphasis on production of inputs to agriculture that had already been initiated by her father, Jawaharlal Nehru. [12] She was the only child (she had a younger brother who died young),[13] and grew up with her mother, Kamala Nehru, at the Anand Bhavan, a large family estate in Allahabad. [125] India's new hegemonic position, as articulated under the "Indira Doctrine", led to attempts to bring the Himalayan states under India's sphere of influence. [120] Finally, in December 1971, Gandhi intervened directly in the conflict to liberate Bangladesh. The government targeted growth at 5.7% while stating as its goals, "growth with stability and progressive achievement of self-reliance. When Indira Gandhi became PM in January 1966, she had to confront this severe food crisis, made worse by the bad drought years of 1965-66. Elections held soon after for legislative assemblies in States ruled by opposition parties resulted in Congress ministries in those states. By appealing to the economic grievances of developing countries, Gandhi and her successors exercised a moderating influence on the Non-aligned movement, diverting it from some of the Cold War issues that marred the controversial 1979 Havana meeting where Cuban leader Fidel Castro attempted to steer the movement towards the Soviet Union. [100], The day before her death (30 October 1984), Gandhi visited Odisha where she gave her last speech at the then Parade Ground in front of the Secretariat of Odisha. b Mahatma Gandhi. [39][40], The first electoral test for Gandhi was the 1967 general elections for the Lok Sabha and state assemblies. [75] However, the Janata government's home minister, Choudhary Charan Singh, ordered her arrest along with Sanjay Gandhi on several charges, none of which would be easy to prove in an Indian court. Mankombu Sambasivan Swaminathan (born 7 August 1925) is an Indian geneticist and administrator, known for his role in India's Green Revolution, a program under which high-yield varieties of wheat and rice were planted. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1985. Who released a special stamp entitled ‘Wheat Revolution’ in July 1968? [216] In response to this, Bhutto launched a massive campaign to make Pakistan a nuclear power. [32][88], Her PMO office staff included H.Y.Sharada Prasad as her information adviser and speechwriter. [200] However, the proclamation was struck down by the Supreme Court of India. That is when Mrs Gandhi launched the green revolution in a determined bid to make India self-sufficient in food and we have succeeded enormously over the decades. [128], The principle of equal pay for equal work for both men and women was enshrined in the Indian Constitution under the Gandhi administration. New York: Pantheon, 1992. [11], However, it proved to be a useful measure and was pioneer in helping the Government at the time to independently produce necessary crops in her own country instead of depending on foreign exports and whose policies were often misused by the foreign nations to blackmail India to serve their own political purpose and get dominated by those nations.[12]. [212] In 1974, India successfully conducted an underground nuclear test, unofficially code named "Smiling Buddha", near the desert village of Pokhran in Rajasthan. [242], Gandhi's main legacy was standing firm in the face of American pressure to defeat Pakistan and turn East Pakistan into independent Bangladesh. While it was thought at the time, and for decades after, that President Johnson's policy of withholding food grain shipments was to coerce Indian support for the war, in fact, it was to offer India rainmaking technology that he wanted to use as a counterweight to China's possession of the atomic bomb. The alliance parties later merged to form the Janata Party under the guidance of Gandhian leader, Jayaprakash Narayan. Before her election as prime minister, she became active in the organisational wing of the Congress party, working in part in the Women's Department. 3 November 1994. However, in May 1976, Gandhi and Bhutto both agreed to reopen diplomatic establishments and normalise relations. Her lieutenant, P. V. Narasimha Rao, later became prime minister and approved full diplomatic ties with Israel in 1992. Furthermore, they were also apprehensions in the region about Gandhi's plans, particularly after India played a big role in breaking up Pakistan and facilitating the emergence of Bangladesh as a sovereign country in 1971. [208], Responding to the insurgency in Nagaland, Gandhi "unleashed a powerful military offensive" in the 1970s. [8][9], Indira Gandhi was born Indira Nehru into a Kashmiri Pandit family on 19 November 1917 in Allahabad. Intensive irrigation of these crops is creating water-logging and soil depletion problems (Fig. The Gandhi faction, called Congress (R), lost its majority in the parliament but remained in power with the support of regional parties such as DMK. After news of the verdict spread, hundreds of supporters demonstrated outside her house, pledging their loyalty. In 1972, after the less extremist Mizo leaders came to the negotiating table, Gandhi upgraded Mizoram to the status of a union territory. [101] There was fierce criticism of the action by Sikhs in India and overseas. The movement reshaped India and made Indira Gandhi a powerful political leader. The operation was carried out between June 1st and June 8th of 1984. Gandhi did not see the purpose of feminism. Between 1967-68 and 1970-71, grain production rose 35%. [183] The government subsequently launched Operation Forward in 1982, the first cautious attempt at reform. In this context, Gandhi was accused of formulating populist policies to suit her political needs. [17], Indira was taught mostly at home by tutors and attended school intermittently until matriculation in 1934. In 1999, Indira Gandhi was named "Woman of the Millennium" in an online poll organised by the BBC. Since Singh refused to drop them, Congress withdrew its support and President Reddy dissolved Parliament in August 1979. A small-scale insurgency by some militants continued into the late 1970s, but it was successfully dealt with by the government. The importation of wheat from the United States fell through due to political disputes. The latter grew to become India's largest trading partner and its biggest arms supplier for much of Gandhi's premiership. [202] The communist insurgency in India was completely suppressed during the state of emergency. Gandhi accused General Zia of supporting Khalistani militants in Punjab. [251], Although the Maruti Udyog company was first established by Gandhi's son, Sanjay, it was under Indira that the then nationalized company came to prominence. Agricultural technological advancements offered opportunities to increase productivity. In that capacity, she was instrumental in getting the Communist led Kerala State Government dismissed in 1959. During her premiership she formed friendships with many leaders such as West German chancellor, Willy Brandt[156] and Austrian chancellor Bruno Kreisky. Indian environmentalist Vandana Shiva writes that this is the "second Green Revolution". [120] She was also responsible for India joining the group of countries with nuclear weapons. Intensive irrigation of these crops is creating water-logging and soil depletion problems (Fig. Oct 10, 2013, 15:50 PM IST [157] She also enjoyed a close working relationship with many British leaders including conservative premiers, Edward Heath and Margaret Thatcher. The production of wheat has produced the best results in fueling self-sufficiency of India. [150] Efforts to rope in the Asian community to join Indian diplomacy, however, came to naught, in part because of the unwillingness of Indians to remain in politically insecure surroundings, and because of the exodus of African Indians to Britain with the passing of the Commonwealth Immigrants Act in 1968. Answer. Als er 1915 nach Indien zurückkehrt, wird er schnell zur Symbolfigur im Kampf der Inder um … [144] But, the death of Nasser in 1970 and Sadat's growing friendship with Riyadh, and his mounting differences with Moscow, constrained Egypt to a policy of neutrality. Women As National Leaders. Indira Gandhi was the daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru, the first prime minister of India. Opposition to her in the 1973–75 period, after the Gandhi wave had receded, was strongest in the states of Bihar and Gujarat. [24][21] After her mother died, she attended the Badminton School for a brief period before enrolling at Somerville College in 1937 to study history. "I believe the prime minister of India will continue in office until the electorate of India decides otherwise". [181] The preceding year—1979–80—under the Janata Party government saw the strongest recession (−5.2%) in the history of modern India with inflation rampant at 18.2%. MS Swaminathan gets Indira Gandhi National Integration Award. It was passed in the Lok Sabha but fell short of the two-thirds majority in the Rajya Sabha by a single vote. However, Mujibur Rahman's pro-India policies antagonised many in Bangladeshi politics and the military, which feared that Bangladesh had become a client state of India. [244], Being at the forefront of Indian politics for decades, Gandhi left a powerful but controversial legacy on Indian politics. Afterwards, they were taken away by other guards into a closed room where Beant Singh was shot dead. Encouraging Indian scientists to collaborate with their international counterparts, her policies resulted in Indian farmers taking … The Green Revolution in India subsequently culminated under her government in the 1970s and transformed the country from a nation heavily reliant on imported grains and prone to famine to being largely able to feed itself, and become successful in achieving its goal of food security. Who founded the Green Revolution in India with his high-yielding variety (HYV) of wheat and rice, after which it was implemented by the Government of India in its fourth "Five-Year Plan" (1969–1974) when Indira Gandhi was Prime Minister? (a) To shop keeper (b) To land lord’s [166], Under the 1950 Constitution of India, Hindi was to have become the official national language by 1965. [150] Indian condemnation of militant struggles in Kenya and Algeria was in sharp contrast to China, who had supported armed struggle to win African independence. [95] In 1982, Bhindranwale and approximately 200 armed followers moved into a guest house called the Guru Nanak Niwas near the Golden Temple. Lack of finance: Marginal farmers found it very difficult to get. [170] Gandhi personally had a fuzzy concept of socialism. I shall continue to serve until my last breath and when I die, I can say, that every drop of my blood will invigorate India and strengthen it  ...[103] Even if I died in the service of the nation, I would be proud of it. [8] The introduction of high-yielding varieties (HYV) of seeds and the improved quality of fertilizers and irrigation techniques led to the increase in production to make the country self-sufficient in food grains, thus improving agriculture in India. This made India a world leader in the production of bananas, mangoes, coconut and spices and provided sustainable livelihood and nutrition options. 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[162][165] The economy grew at the rate of 9% in 1975–76 alone, and the Fifth Plan, became the first plan during which the per capita income of the economy grew by over 5%. At the beginning of her first term as prime minister, she was widely criticised by the media and the opposition as a "Goongi goodiya" (Hindi for a "dumb doll" or "puppet") of the Congress party bosses who had orchestrated her election and then tried to constrain her. Indira's son, Sanjay selected his own loyalists to head the governments in these states. As a result of the tall and thin straw, the then cultivated varieties were … She was a student at the Modern School in Delhi, St Cecilia's and St Mary's Christian convent schools in Allahabad,[18] the International School of Geneva, the Ecole Nouvelle in Bex, and the Pupils' Own School in Poona and Bombay, which is affiliated with the University of Mumbai. Frequent famines: In 1964–65 and 1965–66, India experienced two severe droughts which led to food shortages and famines among the country's growing population. "[226] Gandhi spent a great deal of time throughout the 1950s helping to organise women. In 1969, she fell out with senior Congress party leaders over several issues. [165] Related to this point were a set of policies which were meant to regulate the private sector. This would allow her to bypass the dominant rural castes both in and of state and local governments as well as the urban commercial class. These problems were aggravated due to absence of training to use modern technology and vast illiteracy leading to excessive use of chemicals.[22]. After this, public sector bank branch deposits increased by approximately 800 percent; advances took a huge jump by 11,000 percent. Due to the rise in use of chemical pesticides and fertilizers, there was a negative effect on the soil and the land (e.g., land degradation). 1. Who released a special stamp entitled ‘Wheat Revolution’ in July 1968? [47][48][49] The Garibi Hatao slogan and the proposed anti-poverty programs that came with it were designed to give Gandhi independent national support, based on the rural and urban poor. [170] Gandhi came out of the language conflicts with the strong support of the south Indian populace. [171] To the rural and urban poor, untouchables, minorities and women in India, Gandhi was "Indira Amma or Mother Indira. [116] On a live TV show Rajiv Gandhi said of the carnage, "When a big tree falls, the earth shakes. The Soviets became the main arms supplier during the Gandhi years by offering cheap credit and transactions in rupees rather than in dollars. The Green Revolution was the success in food growth and agriculture in third world that took place in the 1960's and 1970's during Indira's time as Prime Minister. [239][240][241], In 2011, the Bangladesh Freedom Honour (Bangladesh Swadhinata Sammanona), Bangladesh's highest civilian award, was posthumously conferred on Gandhi for her "outstanding contributions" to Bangladesh's Liberation War. [62] Police were granted powers to impose curfews and detain citizens indefinitely; all publications were subjected to substantial censorship by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. [166] North India was at the centre of the reforms. As an only child, Gandhi naturally stepped into the political light. In reality, they need to still pay for expensive pesticides and irrigation systems, which might lead to increased borrowing to finance the change from traditional seed varieties. Dr. T D Dogra's Expert Evidence in trial of assassination of Late Mrs. Indira Gandhi, Prime Minister of India (Witness No. This time, it was passed successfully as the 26th Amendment to the Constitution of India. [196], Victory over Pakistan in 1971 consolidated Indian power in Kashmir. "A Bitter Harvest: Farmer Suicide and the Unforeseen Social, Environmental and Economic Impacts of the Green Revolution in Punjab, India. [41] Grain diplomacy and currency devaluation became matters of intense national pride in India. She noted that her main problem in office was how to balance her political duties with tending to her children, and "stressed that motherhood was the most important part of her life. Congress party veteran K. Kamaraj was instrumental in Gandhi achieving victory. However, at an … [225] In 1956, she wrote in a letter: "It is because of this that I am taking a much more active part in politics. Updated Nov 13, 2020 | 17:18 IST Netizens had a field day after Barack Obama's description of Rahul Gandhi went viral on social media. Gandhi had a personal motive in pursuing agricultural self-sufficiency, having found India's dependency on the U.S. for shipments of grains humiliating. The increase in food was however, disproportionate. [188] Businessmen who owned the banks were often accused of channeling the deposits into their own companies and ignoring priority sector lending. The Green Revolution in India was first introduced in Punjab in the late 1960s as part of a development program issued by international donor agencies and the Government of India.[15]. They were unhappy with the 1974 nuclear test conducted by India but did not support further action because of the ensuing Cold War with the United States. 'Rahul Gandhi lacks aptitude or the passion to master the subject' “Rahul Gandhi has a nervous, unformed quality about him as if he were a student who'd done the coursework and was eager to impress the teacher but deep down lacked either the aptitude or the passion to … [185] On average, inflation in India had remained below 7% through the 1950s and 1960s. Of grains humiliating in 1973 alliance, under the guidance of Gandhian leader Jayaprakash. 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