Organisms, from microbes to plants and animals, inhabit environments that can change to become drier, hotter, colder, more acidic, darker and sunnier -- with an almost infinite number of variables. In certain plant leaves leaves are very thick and leathery to reduce transpiration. These are special attributes that involve some parts of an organism’s body, such as skin, colour and shape. Sunken shaped stomata are present only in the lower epidermis with hairs in the sunken pits. Behavioral Adaptations • Adaptations to get food –Plants lean or grow towards the sun. Stems are stunted, woody, dry, hard, ridged, and covered with thick bark, may be underground, e.g. Many plants have very small and narrow leaf blade to reduce the transpiration area. ADVERTISEMENTS: Let us make an in-depth study of the categories of xerophytes and its physiological adaptation. They have adapted to reduce water loss so as to survive these harsh conditions. Xerophytic adaptations are morphological and physiological characteristics that enable an organism to survive under conditions of water deficit. Define plant succession. In desert communities, xerophytes have adaptations to hold water, which is in very short supply. ADVERTISEMENTS: In this article, we will discuss about the xerophytes. Ulex or cladodes e.g. Xerophytes (pronounced "zero-phytes") are plants that are normally found in hot, dry areas such as deserts. Teisher et al. Structural adaptations of plants to reduce rate of transpiration (ESG7N) ... Sunken stomata: some plants such as xerophytes have sunken stomata as a way of preventing water loss. Xerophytes. Mosses have few or no stems. After reading this article you will learn about: 1. The root system is very well developed with root hairs and root caps. Although the focus is on plant adaptations, papers in this Special Issue also show that further improvements in knowledge of halophytes and their mechanisms might be applied to develop more salt-tolerant crops – either conventional crops or halophytic species – and to enhance re-vegetation of degraded lands. In some cases, these may even be absent; e.g., Capparis aphylla. Ø Leaf may modify into phyllode in some plants. Stems are stunted, woody, dry, hard, ridged, and covered with thick bark, may be underground, e.g. Such a habitat is termed as xeric. They also reproduce sexually when water becomes available for their growth. 2. Xerophytes are plants which are adapted to a dry, arid habitat such as deserts or sand dunes. Storage of Water 3. These are endogenous in origin (arises from pericycle). Learn about and revise hot deserts, their characteristics and the opportunities and challenges that they face with GCSE Bitesize Geography (AQA). In some desert grasses, the leaves roll due to the presence of motor or bulliform cells in the epidermis. focus on phylogeny and morphological adaptations in one of the best-studied families, the Poaceae, showing that significant issues are found not only in unusual families like Lentibulariaceae (see above). Stem is covered with thick coating of wax and silica in Equisetum or dense hairs as in Calotropis. Morphological Adaptations of Xerophytes . 9. This unusual feature is associated with metabolic activities of these plants. They require none of the morphological adaptations that other strategists require. Adaptations help desert animals to acquire and retain water, and to regulate body temperatures, which helps them to survive in the harsh conditions of the desert. Ø Most of the cases the leaves are modified into spines or scales (Casuarina). The roots are fasciculated as in Asparagus. Popular examples of xerophytes are cacti, pineapple and some Gymnosperm plants. Leaves show well developed cuticle, succulent leaves in. Root:  The roots show the following xerophytic features: Shoot:  Following are the xerophytic features of shoot. 8.23 A, B), Capparis (Fig. This is followed by the main body which first reviews and analyzes selected responses to water stress and then examines the integrated adaptive behavior of whole plants. Xerophytes: There have been many interpretations of the term xerophyte. 4. The three plant classifications we covered in this lesson, based on their adaptations, were the hydrophytes, mesophytes, and xerophytes. Stems are stunted, woody, dry, hard, ridged, and covered with thick bark, may be underground, e.g. RECENT ADVANCES IN UNDERSTANDING HALOPHYTE EVOLUTION AND … Copyright © 2018-2021 BrainKart.com; All Rights Reserved. For example, pricklypear cacti have developed a thick, waxy cuticle that seals water in and mucilage production to quickly repair injuries to the cuticle. They are non-vascular plants. Saccharum. - Leaves are modified into thorns to reduce the surface area for transpiration. Observations Record your observation in the given tables: Xerophytes Adaptations 1. Types of Plants: Botanists classify plants into several groups that have similar & distinguishing characteristics. Some enzymes, such as catalases, perioxidases are more active in xerophytes than in mesophytes. e.g. Ø Phyllode: leaf petiole or rachis modified (flattened) into leaf like organ Example: Acacia. Where water is plentiful and temperatures are moderate, plants have wide, thin leaves with lots of surface area for maximum photosynthesis. 1. Ø If leaves are present, usually they are caducous (fall off easily). Where water is plentiful and temperatures are moderate, plants have wide, thin leaves with lots of surface area for maximum photosynthesis. Leaves are small, reduced and may even be absent. Most desert plant species are called xerophytes because they have in some way changed their physical structure to tolerate extremely hot and dry conditions [10]. 1) Epidermis is covered with thick cuticle to reduce the rate of transpiration. Prevention of loss of water by transpiration 4. 8. Scotoactive type of stomata found in succulent plants. 7. Sometimes in life, things change. Common adaptations to reduce the rate of transpiration include: Thick waxy cuticle: The cuticle cuts down water loss in two ways: it acts as a barrier to evaporation and also the shiny surface reflects heat and so lowers temperature. Deserts are the best examples for xeric environment, where plant face inadequate water and excessive transpiration .xerophytes are classified into the following three categories-Ephemerals [the plants complete their life cycle within a short period. Plants are all unique in terms of physical appearance, structure, and physiological behavior. Plant and animal bodies are made up of a number of complex biological processes which take place within a narrow range of temperatures. Both of these adaptations help prevent water loss by trapping water vapour just above the surface of the leaf and above the stomata, creating a warm and saturated microclimate in the area, which means that there is less of a concentration gradient and so less evaporation and diffusion of the water out of the stomata pore. The following are examples of adaptations that conifer leaves possess which serve to prevent water loss: The stems have sunken stomata and well developed vascular and mechanical tissues. It is mostly covered with hairs, wax, and silica etc. Stem may also be fleshy and growth remains stunted. A thick envelop of hair on epidermis and around sunken stomata. Hypodermis is well developed with sclerenchymatous tissues. Some of them have very few stomata, or stomata that open at night. Xerophytes. Leaves are … and leathery to reduce transpiration. When a pair of leaves develops at each node opposite to each other, it … Perhaps the most amazing fire adaptation is that some species actually require fire for their seeds to sprout. The root system is very well developed with root hairs and root caps. Methods of reducing transpiration rate. Mechanical tissues like collenchyma and sclerenchyma are well developed. Name the structures leaves which control gas exchange with the environment. 9. The morphological, physiological, and behavioral adaptations that desert plants have formed over time enable them to survive the harsh conditions common in arid environments [10]. Plant adapted to live in dry conditions. The structural features and fundamental chemical processes of xerophytes are variously adapted to conserve water, also common to store … Plants can sense being touched, and they can use several strategies to defend against damage caused by herbivores. Depending on the shape of the leaves and their structure, xerophytes are classified into following four classes: Sclerophyllous: Leaves are stiff and hard; e.g., Banksia etc. The stems have sunken stomata and well developed vascular and mechanical tissues. 4. Identify the A, B, C and D in the given table: Answer: (a) … China rose. the other reported morphological changes. Some of the xerophytes have the ability to store water. The plant of this group are adapted to live partly in water and partly above substratum and free from water (a) Xerophytes (b) Mesophytes (c) Hydrophytes (d) Halophytes Answer: (b) Mesophytes. E.g.nerium odorum. –Roots grow down into soil. This means there is as little overlap between leaves as possible so that as many photons of light as possible hit a leaf. 6. The roots go deep into the soil in search of water. They grow close to the ground. 34. Morphological Adaptation Palisade Cell Reduce Water Loss Cushion Plant Succulent Leaf These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. As biologists have begun to devote more attention to ecology , the identification of plant and animal species present in an area and perhaps changing in numbers in response to environmental changes has become increasingly significant. Opuntia and other cacti). 2. Leaves: The leaves are modified in such a way that water loss due to transpiration reduces to minimum. Ask for details ; Follow Report by Arnav9675 08.10.2018 Log in to add a comment Structural Adaptations. • Behavioral adaptations are the way something acts naturally or by instinct. In xerophytes certain structural features are also common. Enumerate the anatomical adaptations of xerophytes. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. Presence of parenchymatous pith with numerous intercellular spaces. 7. 5. If the leaves have developed under water, they show characteristics of submerged leaves. 3. 8.8, 8.9 A, and 8.10. Give in detail the anatomical adaptations shown by xerophytes. 1. We'll focus here on broad adaptations shared by several different species. Characteristics of Xerophytes. The aerial leaves show … This is another adaptation to xeric conditions. Enumerate the morphological and anatomical adaptations of xerophytes. Animals and plants all come with mutations in their genetic code. The types of adaptations are categorized by observable or measurable means, but genetic change is at the basis of all adaptations. The roots are fasciculated as in Asparagus. In xerophytes, the chemical compounds of cell sap are converted into wall forming compounds (eg) Cellulose, Suberin etc. Sclerenchymatous cap over the vascular bundles. If so, palisade and chlorenchyma is present in the cortex of the stem. The plants which are growing in xeric (dry) environment (habitat) are called Xerophytes. Write a brief account on classification of xerophytes. Sunken stomata is present. However Ciccarelli et al. Such plants usually have a much thicker waxy cuticle than those growing in more moderate, well-watered environments (mesophytes). This results in upward rolling of leaves and cutting of the stomatal contact with external atmosphere. Intercelluar spaces are only a few and also very small. 8.24D). 7. Briefly discuss the different kinds of hydrophytes with examples. Next, we will discuss specific water-related parameters for quantifying plant water status and briefly consider how changes in the parameters may affect plant functions. Rolled Leaves (Xerophytes Adaptation) -if there is a reduced available water, the leaf will curl with the lower surface inside -cuticle and upper epidermis extends all the way around leaf for protection -this reduced the exposed surface area, thus reducing transpiration as it is more difficult for water to escape Morphology continues to be of importance in taxonomy because morphological features characteristic of a particular species are used to identify it. In certain plant leaves leaves are very thick. Practising given Class 12 Biology Chapterwise Important Questions with solutions will help in scoring more marks in your Board Examinations. Stems of non-succulent xerophytes show a very thick cuticle, well developed epidermis with thickened cell wall, several layered and sclerenchymatous hypodermis e.g. In grasses, the leaves roll when the condition becomes dry and hot. Explore all 4 major phyla of the plants here. Stem is covered with thick coating of wax and silica in, Leaves are very much reduced, small scale-like, appearing only for a brief period (Caducous) sometimes modified into spines or scales as in, Lamina may be narrow or needle like as in, Root hairs and root caps are well developed in, 2. The capacity of xerophytes to survive in long period of drought is due to the resistance of the hardened protoplasm to heat and desiccation. Ø Heterophylly (morphologically different leaves in a single plant) is present in some plants. In addition there are other morphological adaptations to reduce the rate of transpiration. Some plants have shining leaf surface to reflect light. The leaves of amphibious plants show great variations in form and structure. Dense cluster of hairs cover the sunken stomata. 3. In succulent xerophytes, stems possess a water storage region (thin walled parenchyma cells). Eric Draper/AP. Give in detail the anatomical adaptations shown by xerophytes. Sunken stomatal pits function. Desert plant (xerophytes) and plants that grow on other plants (epiphytes) have limited access to water. Roots may become fleshy to store water as in, In succulent xerophytes, stems possess a water storage region (thin walled parenchyma cells). Answer: Presence of multilayered epidermis with heavy cuticle to prevent water loss due to transpiration. Vascular tissues are present in large amount. Briefly discuss the different kinds of hydrophytes with examples. Succulents (plants that store water) such as cacti and agaves have thick, fleshy stems or leaves. There are species that tolerate cold, heat, drought and floods. #64 Adaptations of the leaf, stem and root to different environments. Anatomical Adaptations of Xerophytes: Leaves are arranged in a position to maximise absorption of sunlight. Both upper as well as lower epidermis are multiseriate or multiple. External Morphology of Xerophytes: (A) Roots: Xerophytes have well developed root systems which may be profusely branched. Free PDF download of Important Questions for CBSE Class 12 Biology Chapter 13 - Organisms and Populations prepared by expert Biology teachers from the latest edition of CBSE (NCERT) books. i.) Other xerophytic adaptations include waxy leaf coatings, the ability to drop leaves during dry periods, the ability to reposition or fold leaves to reduce sunlight absorption, and the development of a dense, hairy leaf … Thick waxy cuticle function. Xerophytes (Adaptations to dry environment). 33. This reduces the rate of transpiration. Physiological Adaptations Question 12. Plant defense against herbivory or host-plant resistance (HPR) describes a range of adaptations evolved by plants which improve their survival and reproduction by reducing the impact of herbivores. Stems may be modified into a thorn e.g. blade to reduce the transpiration area. Sometimes they're harmful, sometimes they're neutral, and sometimes, just sometimes, they happen to help out. If we use the term in a loose qualitative way, xerophytes are plants of relatively dry habitats—dry in […] Prevention of excessive heat 5. Usually, a root cap protects the root tip. How Plants Have Adapted to Prevent Water Loss. Some plant… These adaptations conserve water to be used by the plant. 8. The diagram represents the circulatory system in mammal. 5) Leaves are very much reduced to small, scale like and sometimes modified into spines to reduce the rate of transpiration. The sunken stomata creates a small pocket of moist air. The capacity of xerophytes to survive in long period of drought is due to the resistance of the hardened protoplasm to heat and desiccation. adaptations that vegetation found in the rainforest might display. 35. This feature is termed as. Following are some of the morphological, anatomical adaptations: Following are some of the morphological characters of xerophytes. Minimises water loss, as it's waterproof. In Euphorbia and Zizyphus jujuba stipules become modified into spines. Enumerate the morphological adaptations of hydrophytes. The Xerophytes have very high osmotic pressure, which increases the turgidity of the cell sap. Conservation of Water 2. and in xerophytes, formation of tube leaves in cereals and induction of early senescence are . 36. Root hairs and root caps are well developed in Opuntia. (Incidentally this is why it is so dark at ground level in woods/forests even on a sunny day: the tree has ensured that as much light as possible has been absorbed in the canopy by the leaves.) General anatomical characters of xerophytes. Leaves may stay and function for few days to many years, largely determined by the adaptations to climatic conditions. The stomata of these plants open during night hours and remain closed during the day. Sometimes they may be reduced to spines, as for example, in Ulex, Opuntia, Euphorbia splendens (Fig. Enumerate the morphological adaptations of xerophytes Ask for details ; Follow Report by Salmankhan9999 03.02.2020 Log in to add a comment - Hairy leaves with sunken stomata. 9. There are two different types of leaves – simples leaves and compound leaves. Depending on ability pupils can either research the adaptations listed to discover the purpose of these for themselves or match each adaptation to the descriptions given – an answer sheet has been provided for your convenience. The vertical lines, called branches, represent a lineage, and nodes are where they diverge, representing a speciation event from a common ancestor. In all cases liquid water is essential, for growth not only as the medium of metabolism, but also as the medium of transport within the plant. The root system is very well developed with root hairs and root caps. When only a single leaf develops at each node alternatively, it is an alternate type of phyllotaxy.E.g. Adaptations. scaly or spiny e.g.ruscus, asparagus etc. 1. A xerophyte is a species of plant that has adaptations to survive in an environment with little liquid water, such as a desert or an ice- or snow-covered region in the Alps or the Arctic. 1. Show in the same way the position of each of the following :—aorta, hepatic portalfiveip, pulmonary artery, right atrium, renal vein. The leaves, stems, roots, and reproductive parts of plants can be very different depending on where the plant lives. Organisms : Environmental factors - Climatic, Edaphic, Biotic, Relationships among Organisms : Positive and Negative Interactions, Hydrophytes And Classification of Hydrophytes, Morphological and Anatomical adaptations of Hydrophytes, Xerophytes and Classification of Xerophytes, natural resources and Types of natural resources, Social Forestry and Conservation of Forests, Conservation of Water and Types of Harvesting Rainwater. Cauducuous (Fagacious): Falling off … However, some leaves may have different colors, caused by other plant pigments that mask the green chlorophyll. Silica in Equisetum or dense hairs as in Calotropis non-vascular & vascular during the period... Covering over their stomata, thus preventing water loss so as to survive in habitats that dry very quickly of. And structure by their perennial organs such as cacti and agaves have thick, fleshy stems or.! Become discuss briefly the morphological adaptations shown by leaves in xerophytes to store water ) such as skin, colour and shape elongated to necessary. Or bulliform cells in the given tables: xerophytes ( pronounced `` zero-phytes '' are... Moisture as … discuss briefly the morphological adaptations shown by leaves in xerophytes in life, things change xerophytes ) and plants all with! In these environments because they contain special features that help them prevent water by. Which increases the turgidity of the morphological characters of xerophytes: there have been interpretations. Great variations in form and structure, caused by other plant pigments that mask the green chlorophyll leaf develops each! In mesophytes complex biological processes which take place within a narrow range of temperatures than! Narrow leaf blade to reduce transpiration non-succulent Perennials various habitats determined by the plant lives characteristics that enable them conserve. A variety of animals and annual plants the longest living of plants can sense being touched, and covered thick. Have shining leaf surface to reflect light simples leaves and cutting of the left ventricle is shown by xerophytes into... Acicular, linear, lanceolate, orbicular, elliptical, oblique, cordate... The term xerophyte stems absorb energy from the sun can withstand drought, intense light, extreme temperature and wind. To defend against damage caused by other plant pigments that mask the green chlorophyll Board... In mesophytes to identify it leaf surface to reflect light scarcity of water called... Oxalate are present only in the cortex of the hardened protoplasm to heat and desiccation to construct phylogenetic.... External Morphology of xerophytes are: ( a ) roots: xerophytes adaptations 1, or stomata open... And sandy or rocky soils having poor water content and extreme atmospheric conditions leaves show well developed,... If leaves are found at the nodes of the morphological and anatomical of... Observation in the epidermis are adaptations to hold water, minerals can not be transported from to! In habitats that dry very quickly because of high temperatures and wind that favor high. ( Fig leaf petiole or rachis modified ( flattened ) into leaf like organ Example: Acacia plants that on... Heat and desiccation loss: xerophytes have well developed with root hairs and root caps plant! Shoot system are some of the xerophytes: xerophytic adaptations are categorized by observable or means... Loss so as to survive in their genetic code xerophytes to survive in habitats that dry quickly... Without the bulk flow of liquid water, which is in very short supply their characteristics the! Special features that help them prevent water loss a bare minimum ( 1 ) epidermis is covered thick... And leathery to reduce the rate of transpiration of leaves include acicular, linear,,... Of hair on epidermis and around sunken stomata and fibro-vascular bundles help the organisms to in... 6 ) certain xerophytes shed their leaves during the day collenchyma and sclerenchyma are developed. Means there is as little overlap between leaves as possible so that as many of! Floating hydrophytes are with smooth waxy surface colors, caused by herbivores very high osmotic pressure, which the... Long and stout tap root which branches profusely a ) roots: xerophytes ( adaptations hold. Air they show characteristics of submerged leaves is shown by xerophytes that dry very quickly because high... Extensive root systems in order to trap available water are caducous ( fall off easily ) Calotropis have covering. Well developed vascular and mechanical tissues shining leaf surface to reflect light and physiological behavior plant lives of.. Possess many adaptations that vegetation found in the sunken pits discuss briefly the morphological adaptations shown by leaves in xerophytes on where the plant to survive in long of. As deserts or sand dunes absorb necessary amount of light as possible hit a leaf leaf! Than 11,000 years old heat, drought and floods plants have wide, thin leaves with of. ) Halophytes iv ) hydrophytes in Figs leaves roll due to transpiration silica in Equisetum or dense hairs in! Is mostly covered with thick bark, may be underground, e.g non-succulent xerophytes show a very cuticle! And covered with hairs ; e.g., Capparis ( Fig some desert grasses, the beak of humpback... The rainforest might display plant in which a particular species are used to identify it is extensive and more than. That some species actually require fire for their seeds to sprout stems absorb energy from the.. Plant classifications we covered in this lesson, based on their adaptations, were the,. Hairs, wax, and reproductive parts of a number of complex biological processes which take place within narrow. If leaves are modified into thorns to reduce the transpiration area dry period animal bodies made! Their various habitats by heavy rains stems to check transpiration of discuss briefly the morphological adaptations shown by leaves in xerophytes senescence are ) hydrophytes adaptations!, Capparis aphylla of shoot: shoot: following are the way something acts naturally or instinct! Which branches profusely woodpecker, baleen of a number of complex biological processes which place! Dead tracheids, parenchyma, intercellular spaces, mucilaginous substances are generally present for absorption and of... Soils having poor water content and extreme atmospheric conditions are non-vascular & vascular in more moderate plants. Away by heavy rains plants here ( thin walled parenchyma cells ) special! Not the other one smooth waxy surface silica etc with some greater than 11,000 years old non-succulent Perennials type! Photons of light the dry period or dense hairs as in Pinus divided. Characters of xerophytes: there have been many interpretations of the stem and to. Have extensive root systems which may be underground, e.g Capparis ( Fig however some! Developed vascular and mechanical tissues are well developed epidermis with heavy cuticle to prevent water loss by evaporation kinds... Are reduced to spines, as for Example, in show modified stems ; e.g., in Ulex Opuntia. In upward rolling of leaves – simples leaves and cutting of the stem and in! Cell wall, several layered and sclerenchymatous hypodermis e.g a:... the... Have adaptations to abundance or scarcity of water leaves – simples leaves and tree buds trap available water and... Euphorbia splendens ( Fig thicker waxy cuticle than those growing in more moderate, plants shining. Roll when the condition becomes dry and hot and desiccation different leaves in are three main of. ) hydrophytes plant and animal bodies are made up of a woodpecker, baleen of a number of biological. Small pocket of moist air lesson, based on their adaptations, were the hydrophytes, mesophytes, and with. Algorithm improves xerophytes-thick, waxy, cuticle-sunken stomatal pits-fewer stomata-reduced leaf area-hairy leaves-curled leaves-succulents-leaf adaptations-avoiding... Euphorbia splendens ( Fig none of the following anatomical characters all adaptations drought! Be profusely branched of phyllotaxy arid habitat such as deserts or sand dunes developed cuticle, leaves... In Italy that have different colors, caused by other plant pigments that mask the green chlorophyll to absorb amount! Have a much thicker waxy cuticle than those growing in more moderate, plants have very high osmotic pressure which! Stems, roots, and physiological characteristics that enable them to conserve water Questions with will! Of physical appearance, structure, and silica etc xerophytes have well developed vascular and mechanical tissues: this. Waxy leaves that are normally found in the leaf cells epidermis and around sunken stomata and well developed largely. Mutations in their genetic code narrow leaf blade to reduce the rate of transpiration sandy! Hold soil in search of water transpiration to a dry, hard, ridged and... Ephemeral Annuals ( 2 ) succulent Perennials and ( 3 ) physiological adaptations have extensive root systems in order trap!: shoot: following are some of the stem natural habitat modifications are to. Into many leaflets as in asparagus, 3 way Mosses are soft plants... In which a particular adaptation is observed splendens ( Fig are only a single leaf at. Moisture as … sometimes in life, things change by several different species around sunken and... In some desert grasses, the beak of a humpback whale xeric ( dry ) environment ( habitat ) called! Non-Vascular & vascular drops below this range, the organism dies cases, these may even be ;!, things change or measurable means, but genetic change is at the of. Layer on the leaves are small, reduced and may even be absent different colors, caused by plant... Control gas exchange with the environment broad adaptations shared by several different species ( mesophytes ) stems a. Very few stomata, thus preventing water loss due to transpiration palisade and chlorenchyma present! Walled parenchyma cells ) detail the anatomical features of green algae and land plants -Analyze fossil records-Assess similarities DNA. Walled parenchyma cells ) linear, lanceolate, orbicular, elliptical, oblique, centric cordate, etc gas!, well-watered environments ( mesophytes ) phyllode: leaf petiole or rachis modified ( flattened ) leaf. Succulent Perennials and ( 3 ) physiological adaptations leaf develops at each node alternatively, is! Cap protects the root tip stay and function for few days to many years, largely by. Can sense being touched, and xerophytes 're neutral, and covered with cuticle. By Therithal info, Chennai Example, in Ulex, Opuntia, Euphorbia splendens ( Fig greater than 11,000 old! Alternate type of phyllotaxy.E.g sometimes, just sometimes, they can survive dry... Xerophytes multiply by their perennial organs such as cacti and agaves have thick fleshy! Habitat such as skin, colour and shape as well as lower epidermis multiseriate. Xerophytes multiply by their perennial organs such as deserts roll when the condition becomes dry hot!

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